Neigen wir in der Welt von Everything-as-a-Service zur Überautomatisierung?

Über den Nuzzel-Newsletter von Siggi Lautenbacher bin ich auf den ZDNet-Beitrag Software developers and designers risk over-automating enterprises aufmerksam geworden, der Bezug auf Thesen von Don Norman, Gründer und Direktor des Design Lab an der University of California, San Diego und früherer Apple und HP Executive, nimmt. Der Artikel, auf den Bezug genommen wird, ist sehr lesenswert und passt in meine derzeitige “Serie” zum Thema Automatisierung. Norman ordnet erst einmal die derzeitige Entwicklung ein:

Consider the rise of intelligent machines, or the growth of cloud services coupled with the prevalence of computer chips, sensors, and telecommunications capability in almost everything: the Internet of Things. Technology is undergoing rapid change, which means that business models must change as well. Think of the new world as EaaS: Everything as a Service.
Advances in artificial intelligence and machine learning coupled with cheap sensors, ubiquitous telecommunications, and ever more powerful computer chips have come together to enable unprecedented automation of tasks long thought undoable by machine. Machines are increasingly taking over tasks once done by people, to the extent that theorists are beginning to construct a framework for a “post-work” economy. More and more jobs require people to work closely with machines, handing off tasks from person to machine and then back again, supervising the work of machines, and sometimes being supervised by machines.

via Design, business models, and human-technology teamwork –

Norman nimmt dann Stellung zum Thema Automatisierung. Welche Aufgaben sollten möglichst komplett automatisiert und wo sollte Automatisierung (und künstliche Intelligenz) menschliche Tätigkeiten und Fähigkeiten ergänzen:

One rule commonly discussed in robotics is that automation should replace people for tasks that fall into one or more of the three Ds: dirty, dull, and dangerous. But for other tasks, those that are clean, exciting, creative, and safe, automation should be used to augment human abilities.

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Norman mahnt die Tendenz an, dass Entwickler oft dazu tendieren, Prozesse in den Tools zu überautomatisieren und zu wenig an den menschlichen Aspekt zu denken. Er fordert zu einem Umdenken beim Prozessdesign auf:

The key is to start with human capabilities, designing the technology to take over the parts of a task that people are bad at. …

Technology and human intelligence have different characteristics, different strengths, and different ways of working. Machines process information very quickly, never get bored, and reliably do the things they are designed to do. People excel at tasks requiring the exercise of creativity, a response to unexpected situations, or general attentiveness to the entire surrounding environment. A truly powerful automation approach takes these different strengths into account to create a superior, collaborative system.

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Sehr bemerkens- und bedenkenswerte Überlegungen, die sehr gut zu den Aussagen von IBM CEO Ginni Rometty zum Thema künstliche Intelligenz passen, die u.a. beim World Economic Forum in Davos von Augmented Intelligence spricht. von kognitiven Technologien, die die menschlichen Fähigkeiten ergänzen und erweitern.

Don Norman trifft in seinem Beitrag noch wichtige Aussagen zum Thema Design und der Notwendigkeit, Design Thinking von Beginn an einzubeziehen, wenn Prozesse automatisiert werden. Gerhard Pfau und seine Kollegen von IBM Design wird es mit zustimmenden Nicken lesen:

Accomplishing this synergy between human and machine requires new attention, and a new kind of attention to design. Design is a badly misunderstood term. To the engineer, design is the detailed specification of components or products that will be implemented, … To the public, design means making things look pretty. …

Modern design is people-centered, focused on the needs of those who will interact with the product or service. …

But too often, designers are allowed in only at the end of the process (to make it look pretty) rather than at the front end (to make sure that it’s the correct product; that it’s understandable, usable, and desirable; and that it doesn’t need frequent service calls or have complex maintenance requirements). These are all aspects of design, and they are all natural results of good design, of the integration of design thinking into every aspect of product planning and development.

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(Stefan Pfeiffer)

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